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Citation Styles and Tools: American Psychological Association (APA)

How to construct citations in MLA, Chicago, APA, ACS, and ASA, and tools that can help you

APA Style

Here are some basic guidelines for APA style citations. For more technical or specific questions, the APA Guide has a solution for practically any situation you might encounter.

For in-text citations, APA uses parenthetical citations. This usually looks like (Author lastname, year).

Example: Early onset results in a more persistent and sever course (Kessler, 2003)

If you cite the author earlier in the sentence, you only need to provide the page number.

Example: According to Kessler, early onset results in a more persistent and sever course (2003).

And if you include both in the text, nothing is needed

Example: In 2003, Kessler found that early onset results in a more persistent and sever course.

For Reference lists, the list is in alphabetical order based on author name. Please consult the full APA guide for any other source type you might need to cite.

Journal article 

Format: Lastname, Initials, Lastname, Initials, etc. (year). Title of Article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:[doi] OR url.

Example: Drabinski, E. (2013). Queering the Catalog: Queer Theory and the Politics of Correction. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 83(2), 94-111. doi:10.1086/669547.


Format: Lastname, Initials. (Year). Title of work (Series title if applicable). Publisher. URL if applicable.

Example: Oatley, K. (2018). Our Minds, Our Selves: A Brief History of Psychology. Princeton University Press.

Technical and Research Reports (grey literature)

Format: Lastname, Initials OR Agency. (Year). Title of work (Report No. XXX or other identifying information). Location: Publisher. URL if found online.

Example: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National institutes of Health, National Hearth, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.giv/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf.

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