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Citation Styles and Tools: American Sociological Association (ASA)

How to construct citations in MLA, Chicago, APA, ACS, and ASA, and tools that can help you

ASA Style

Here are some basic guidelines for ASA style citations. For more technical or specific questions, the ASA Guide has a solution for practically any situation you might encounter.

For in-text citations, ASA uses parenthetical citations in the form of (LastName Year:PageNumber)

Example: By 1911, according to one expert, an Amazon was "any woman rebel-which, to a lot of people, meant any girl who left home and went to college" (Lepore 2015:17).

For the Reference list it will be in alphabetical order based on author name.

Journal article note: many professors don't want the URL at the end even if you found it online, defer to their syllabus/assignment instructions or ask if you are unsure.

Format: Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. Year of publication. "Title of Article." Name of Publication Volume Number(Issue Number): page numbers of article. Retrieval date (URL/DOI if found online).

Example: Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. "Marital Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.


Format: Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. Year of publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Example: Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington Books.

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